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cultivo de raspado vaginal

Comprender los resultados del laboratorio de pruebas en el hogar

Con los resultados de nuestro laboratorio de cultivo de raspado vaginal, descubrirás las infecciones que podrías tener, por qué puedes tenerlas, cómo prevenirlas y cómo tratarlas.
Introducción general a sus resultados de laboratorio La flora vaginal normal (microorganismos) está dominada por la bacteria lactobacillus. Los lactobacilos ayudan a mantener la vagina saludable al producir ácido láctico, peróxido de hidrógeno y otras sustancias que detienen el crecimiento excesivo de levaduras (hongos) y otros organismos no deseados. Mantienen la vagina a un pH saludable de alrededor de 4.   En general, hay muchos desencadenantes comunes para que se produzca un desequilibrio de la flora vaginal, lo que hace que crezcan bacterias u hongos no deseados. A menudo vienen combinados y pueden ser mecánicos, hormonales o químicos. Estos factores desencadenantes incluyen: menstruación, sexo, higiene demasiado agresiva o demasiado deficiente, embarazo, anticoncepción hormonal (píldoras anticonceptivas), estrés, antibióticos y menopausia.   Vaginitis significa infección o inflamación de la vagina. La infección se refiere a la invasión y multiplicación de bacterias o virus dentro del cuerpo; la inflamación es la respuesta protectora del cuerpo contra la infección. La infección bacteriana, también conocida como VB, es una referencia muy común a todas las infecciones causadas por diferentes tipos de bacterias en la vagina.   Hay muchos factores que pueden desencadenar una respuesta inmune inflamatoria vaginal localizada. La vaginitis generalmente se divide en 5 categorías: 1) irritante, 2) hormonal, 3) cuerpo extraño, 4) infecciones de transmisión sexual y 5) infecciosa. La vaginitis infecciosa puede ser causada por bacterias, hongos, virus y otros microorganismos.   Las formas más comunes de infecciones en la vagina son la candidiasis (infección fúngica por candida albicans) y la vaginosis bacteriana (infección causada por bacterias). Estos son trastornos vaginales comunes asociados con el crecimiento excesivo de bacterias u hongos que generalmente se observan con algunos de los siguientes síntomas: olor inusual, cambios en el flujo vaginal, dolor o ardor al orinar, picazón, enrojecimiento, hinchazón, erupciones, llagas, dolor durante las relaciones sexuales, ardor, irritación y malestar general en el área genital. En algunos casos, la infección no se manifiesta en ninguno de los síntomas anteriores.   La mejor manera de saber la diferencia entre una infección bacteriana y una micótica es observar el flujo vaginal. Las infecciones fúngicas causadas por Candida muestran una secreción blanca similar al requesón con picazón y sensación de ardor. Mientras que las infecciones bacterianas causan secreción maloliente desagradable.   Si realizas la prueba casera omgyno y recibes los resultados de laboratorio, verás dos tipos de cultivos: aeróbico y anaeróbico. Las bacterias aeróbicas se refieren al grupo de microorganismos que crecen en presencia de oxígeno y prosperan en un ambiente oxigenado. Las bacterias anaeróbicas se refieren al grupo de microorganismos que crecen en ausencia de oxígeno y no pueden sobrevivir en presencia de un ambiente oxigenado.   La mayoría de las infecciones bacterianas en la vagina se deben a la contaminación del ano; ocurre cuando las bacterias intestinales ingresan a la vagina y se multiplican. Por eso se recomienda limpiarse de adelante hacia atrás al defecar y cuidar la higiene perineal. En caso de una infección importante, el personal médico puede recomendarte que tomes antibióticos. Sin embargo, vale la pena señalar que las tasas globales de infecciones bacterianas continúan aumentando, facilitadas por la aparición de resistencia a los antibióticos de amplio espectro.   Otras formas de infecciones pueden transmitirse sexualmente, como el VPH (la ITS más común en las mujeres), clamidia, tricomonas, herpes y gonorrea.

1.1  MICROSCOPIC VALIDATION 

In the first part of the sample analysis, the vaginal fluid is observed under a microscope to determine if any unusual microorganisms are present.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE?

Pyocytes are mainly degenerating white blood cells found in pus. When these cells are found in the vaginal fluid, it means that your vagina was involved in defending itself against foreign substances.

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

On their own Pyocytes are not a problem, only an indication that there has been an infection. Pyocytes disappear on their own once the original infection has been eliminated. The quantity of pyocytes can determine how large the infection was, and further tests on your sample may also indicate what caused the infection if it is still in the body.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE?

The fungus Candida Albicans is the most commonly found type of fungus in the vagina. Normal amounts of Candida live in the mouth, stomach, and vagina, and do not cause infections. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of fungus (yeast), including Candida, and bacteria, and certain bacteria (lactobacillus) act to prevent an overgrowth of the fungus. 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

If that balance is disrupted, an overgrowth of candida or penetration of the fungus into deeper vaginal cell layers causes the signs and symptoms of a yeast infection such as itchiness, redness and swelling (Candidiasis).

Overgrowth of fungus can result from:

  • Antibiotic use, which kill healthy bacteria in your vagina that prevent overgrowth
  • Increased estrogen levels can be due to oral contraceptives or hormone therapy 
  • Pregnancy 
  • Uncontrolled diabetes (poorly controlled blood sugar)
  • A weak immune system

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Treating a yeast infection is related to the severity of each individual’s situation. There are over the counter antifungal treatments and also prescription medication; consult a doctor to know what is the best treatment for you.

  • Topical antifungal medications, which are available as creams, ointments, tablets and suppositories, include Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Tioconazole, Butoconazole, and Terconazole. 
  • Oral antifungal medications, which your doctor might prescribe as a one-time, single oral dose of fluconazole. Not recommended if you're pregnant.
  • Alternative medicine therapies, which can ease the symptoms of a yeast infection and provide relief such as natural antifungals or probiotics ("friendly" bacteria), as well as immune-strengthening therapies (Vitamin C, E, selenium; essential fatty acids such omega-6 and omega-3; Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, folate; Caprylic acid, and Propolis). There is insufficient medical research to determine the efficacy of these therapies, but many people find it soothing especially for milder conditions; so you won’t know if it works for you unless you try.
  • Lifestyle & Behavioral changes, which is often focused on changes in diet (such as avoiding sugars) and clothing habits (cotton instead of synthetics), and avoiding certain habits further explained in the prevention methods below.

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Completely preventing a fungal infection or overgrowth from occurring in your vagina is not 100% possible, because there are so many factors that can cause it ranging from stress, or sickness or any fluctuation in your immune system; however, the following are guidelines that work for many people, the key is to ensure that your healthy bacteria are there stop the overgrowth:

 

  • Avoid douching, which removes some of the healthy bacteria in the vagina 
  • Avoid scented products, including bubble bath, pads and tampons
  • Avoid hot tubs and very hot baths
  • Avoid unnecessary antibiotic use, such as for colds or other viral infections
  • Loose, cotton, and dry clothing are often advised to ensure that less moisture is trapped in the area.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE?

Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite responsible for the very common sexually transmitted infection Trichomoniasis. Although symptoms of the disease vary, most people who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected. The parasite passes from an infected person to an uninfected person during sex. In females, the most commonly infected part of the body is the lower genital tract (vulva, vagina, cervix, or urethra). In men, the most commonly infected body part is the inside of the penis (urethra). It can spread from a penis to a vagina, from a vagina to a penis, and from a vagina to another vagina, even without any obvious symptoms.

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

Only a lab analysis can determine if a person has Trichomoniasis, as it is often symptom-less. If Trichomonas has been detected it must be treated for the person who has been diagnosed and for their sex partners in order to stop the parasite from recurring infections.

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Trichomoniasis can be treated by antibiotics medication prescribed by a doctor.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Trichomoniasis can be prevented by practicing safe sex with a condom or being in sexual relationships where all members involved have tested negative.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Niesser is short for Neisseria Gonorrhoea and is a bacteria that causes Gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection which can be transmitted via vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

If Neisseria Gonorrhoea has been detected, it must be treated immediately as it can spread throughout the body causing serious health issues in the joints, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility.

 

HOW TO TREAT IT? 

Gonorrhoea is treated with dual antibiotic therapy (injection & oral).

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT? 

Neisseria Gonorrhoea can be prevented by practicing safe sex with a condom or being in sexual relationships where all members involved have tested negative.

  • WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE?

    Clue cells indicate the presence of bacteria in your vagina. If clue cells are found, it means you may have or had bacterial vaginosis.


    WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM? 

    If Clue cells have been found in the microscopic validation, which is the first part of the lab analysis, then a culture of the sample must be developed to further determine the specific type of bacteria that is found.

Doctor's Note example: Several pyocytes and gram - stain bacteria were detected

 

What are gram-stain, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria?

Gram staining is a technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall constituents. The Gram stain procedure distinguishes between Gram positive and Gram negative groups by coloring these cells red or violet. Gram positive bacteria stain violet and Gram negative bacteria stain red. Based on this procedure, the lab results will be better able to tell you what type of bacteria is present in your vagina.

AEROBIC CULTURE

An aerobic organism survives and grows in an oxygenated environment. Your sample is cultured (allowed to grow) in this environment to determine the type of organisms there might be.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE?

Escherichia coli bacteria normally live in the intestines of healthy people and inhabit the rectum. They can cause infection if they spread to the vagina. The following conditions increase the

likelihood of infections:

  • General poor health or poor hygiene.
  • Hot weather, non-ventilating clothing, especially underwear, or any other condition that increases genital moisture, warmth and darkness. These foster the growth of germs.

The risk increases with

  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Menopause.
  • Illness that has lowered resistance.
  • HIV infection

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM? 

Vaginitis means infection or inflammation of the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis may be caused by E.coli. These infections are contagious. When there is a significant amount of E.Coli in the vagina, it must be treated to prevent further growth. Sometimes the condition can be asymptomatic. 

Severity of the following symptoms varies between people and from time to time in the same person:

  • Vaginal discharge that has an unpleasant odor 
  • Genital swelling, burning and itching 
  • Vaginal discomfort
  • Change in vaginal color from pale pink to red
  • Discomfort during sexual intercourse

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

  • Antibiotics are often used for treatment of bacterial vaginosis. As excessive antibiotics use is not advised, it is recommended that an antibiotics resistance test is made by the lab to recommend the most effective treatment for your body.
  • Soothing vaginal creams or lotions for nonspecific forms of vaginitis may also be recommended.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

  • Keep the genital area clean. Use plain unscented soap. Be sure sexual partner is clean. 
  • Take showers rather than tub baths. 
  • Wear cotton underpants or pantyhose with a cotton crotch. 
  • Don’t sit around in wet clothing, especially a wet bathing suit. 
  • After urination or bowel movements, cleanse by wiping from front to back (vagina to anus). 
  • Avoid vaginal douches, deodorants and bubble baths.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE?

Proteus Mirabilis is a bacteria and part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, when this organism enters the body through the urinary tract, it can become pathogenic. It commonly causes more complicated forms of urinary tract infections and the formation of stones. 

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

If Proteus Mirabilis is found in the vagina, it should be treated as it may cause urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and other more serious complications. Symptoms of urethritis are mild and can be easily treated. In some cases, Pyelonephritis (kidney infection) can occur when the bacteria migrate from the lower urinary tract. These cases are considered more serious. Common symptoms include:

  • Frequency of urination
  • Pyuria (presence of white blob cells in the urine)
  • Cystitis (bladder infection)
  • Back pain
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Hematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine)

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

In recent years, this pathogen has increasingly developed resistance to common antibiotics, which makes it difficult to combat the infections it causes.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Proteus Mirabilis spreads mainly through contact with infected persons or contaminated objects and surfaces. The pathogens can also be ingested via the intestinal tract, for example, when it is present in contaminated food. The germs spread quickly because they are very agile. The bacteria can enter the human urogenital system from the intestine, or following a smear infection (direct contact with contaminated person or object). In Europe, one of the most common ways to contract this infection is through hospital surgeries and procedures.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Pseudomonas spp. Is a type of bacteria (spp stands for multiple species) that causes Urinary Tract Infections.

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

If Pseudomonas is found in the vagina, it should be treated as it may cause urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and other more serious complications. Symptoms of urethritis are mild and can be easily treated. In some cases, Pyelonephritis (kidney infection) can occur when the bacteria migrate from the lower urinary tract. These cases are considered more serious. Common symptoms include:

  • Frequency of urination
  • Pyuria (presence of white blob cells in the urine)
  • Cystitis (bladder infection)
  • Back pain
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Hematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine)

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

In recent years, this pathogen has increasingly developed resistance to common antibiotics, which makes it difficult to combat the infections it causes.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Pseudomonas spreads mainly through contact with infected persons or contaminated objects and surfaces. The pathogens can also be ingested via the intestinal tract, for example, when it is present in contaminated food. The bacteria can enter the human urogenital system from the intestine, or following a smear infection (direct contact with contaminated person or object).

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Klebsiella spp. is a type of bacteria (spp stands for multiple species) that is commonly found in nature. In humans, they are part of the normal flora of the nose, mouth and gastrointestinal tract. However, they can act as opportunistic pathogens (i.e. those that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a weakened immune system) with the majority of human infections originating from K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

If K. pneumoniae gets in your urinary tract, it can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI) and it usually happens in older women. UTIs caused by Klebsiellae are clinically indistinguishable from UTIs caused by other prevalent organisms. Frequent urge to urinate, pain and burning when urinating, strong-smelling urine, low back pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen are all clinical characteristics. 

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

K.pneumoniae infections are treated with antibiotics. However, some organisms may be resistant to multiple antibiotics If you have a drug-resistant infection, your doctor will order lab tests to determine which antibiotic will work best. Always follow your doctor’s instructions. If you stop taking antibiotics too soon, the infection might come back.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Because Klebsiella infections spread through person-to-person contact, washing your hands frequently is the best approach to avoid infection.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Staphylococcus bacteria, which are often present on the skin and in the nose of even healthy people, cause staph infections. Most of the time, these bacteria do not cause any issues or only cause minor skin infections. They can become more serious if the bacteria go into your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs, or heart. 

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

  1. saprophyticus is a common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections, especially in young sexually active females. A burning sensation when peeing, an increased desire to urinate, a 'dripping effect' after urination, a weak bladder, a bloated feeling with acute pains in the lower abdomen around the bladder and ovary areas, and razor-like pains during sexual intercourse are all symptoms. 

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infections are usually treated with antibiotics. When selecting optimal antibiotic coverage, it is critical to examine individual local resistance patterns.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Hand washing is your primary line of defense against Staphylococcus bacteria. Staph bacteria can cause toxic shock syndrome. Tampons that have been kept in for an extended period of time can become a breeding ground for staph germs. Changing your tampon on a regular basis- at least every four to eight hours-  will help you avoid toxic shock syndrome. Use the tampon with the lowest absorbency possible. When feasible, switch between tampons and sanitary napkins.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

There are more than 17 different species of enterococci. Almost every mammal on the planet has these in its intestines. This bacterium can also be discovered in the mouth and vaginal tract in some situations. 

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

Enterococcus does not generally cause an issue in healthy people or when present in normal numbers. If it spreads to other parts of the body, however, it could result in life-threatening infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are two species of enterococci bacteria that cause clinical infections in humans. The bacteria may cause UTIs and if you’re a woman, you have a higher risk of getting a UTI. The symptoms include: a strong and ongoing need to urinate, a burning feeling when urinating,cloudy, red, pink, or cola-colored urine, and lower abdominal pain.

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

  1. faecalis has both natural and acquired immunity from antibiotic treatment. As a result, it is one of the bacteria with the highest antibiotic resistance. It can withstand a wide range of temperatures as well as acidic or alkaline conditions.

Urinary tract infections do not require bactericidal therapy and, if the causative organism is sensitive, are usually treated with a single antibiotic such as ampicillin.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

​​Enterococci are most commonly transmitted due to poor hygiene. Therefore, good hygiene is the best practice. After using the restroom, properly wash your hands, especially your fingertips and thumbs. Avoid using other people's personal hygiene products such soaps, washcloths, towels, and razors.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Streptococci come in a variety of forms, with infections ranging from minor throat infections to pneumonia. They are divided into two key groups, based on their appearance: α-hemolytic and β-hemolytic Streptococci. α-hemolytic Streptococci are very common and many species are naturally found in the body, causing no symptoms. 

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

Β-hemolytic are divided into two groups: A and B. Many adults have group B strep in their bodies, mainly in the bowel, vaginal, rectum, bladder, or throat, with no symptoms. However, group B strep can sometimes result in a urinary tract infection or other more dangerous illnesses. Infections caused by group B strep can cause the following signs and symptoms.

  • Urge to urinate that is strong and persistent
  • When urinating, you may have a burning feeling or pain.
  • Urine passing in little amounts on a regular basis
  • Pee that is red, bright pink, or cola-colored indicates that there is blood in the urine.
  • Pelvic discomfort

Group B strep bacteria aren't sexually transmitted, and they're not spread through food or water. It's unclear how the bacterium is transmitted to people who aren't newborns. If a newborn is exposed to — or swallows — group B strep-containing secretions during a vaginal birth, the infection can transfer to the baby.

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Antibiotics are used to treat the infection, which are often given directly into the bloodstream (intravenously). These infections may necessitate a hospital stay for treatment. 

It is recommended a group B strep test for pregnant women between weeks 36 and 37. If you are tested positive, it doesn't mean you'll get sick or that your kid will be infected, but it does indicate you're more likely to pass the bacterium on to your child. 

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

When labor begins, your doctor can give you an IV antibiotic - usually penicillin or a similar medicine - to prevent group B bacteria from spreading to your baby during labor or delivery.

ANAEROBIC CULTURE

An anaerobic organism survives and grows in an environment without oxygen. Your sample is cultured (allowed to grow) in this environment to determine the type of organisms there might be.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Bacteroides species are generally mutualistic, accounting for the majority of the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota, where they serve a critical role in the conversion of complicated compounds to simpler molecules in the host intestine.

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

Various gynecologic diseases are associated with Bacteroides species. These infections include bacterial vaginosis, endometritis (inflammation of the endometrial lining of the uterus) and postsurgical gynecologic infections.

HOW TO TREAT IT?

The patient's recovery from anaerobic infection depends on prompt and adequate care based on the three concepts:

  • Anaerobes create toxins that must be neutralized.
  • To limit local bacterial multiplication, the environment must be altered.
  • Bacterial spread must be kept to a minimum.

Antimicrobial therapy is often the only treatment option, however it can also be administered in conjunction with surgical procedures. Because anaerobic bacteria are frequently found in mixtures with aerobic bacteria, the antimicrobial agent of choice should be able to treat both categories of pathogens effectively.

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Early and strong treatment of acute infection can prevent Bacteroides from becoming chronic in regions where they are prevalent. When the risk of anaerobic infections is significant (for example, intra-abdominal and wound infection after surgery), adequate antibiotic prophylaxis can help. Skin and soft tissue infections can be prevented by irrigating wounds and necrotic tissue, draining pus, and improving blood circulation.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Gardnerella vaginalis is a type of bacterium that can be found in your vaginal area. It's a part of your microbiome, also known as vaginal flora. Your vaginal flora is made up of several different types of bacteria in various levels that maintain your vagina healthy. In a delicate balance, the bacteria coexist.

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

Your vaginal flora protects you from diseases when your gardnerella levels are balanced with the other bacteria. You can have a vaginal infection called bacterial vaginosis if there is an imbalance and too much Gardnerella grows (BV).If you have too much Gardnerella, you may observe changes in your vaginal discharge, which are indicators of BV. Your vaginal fluid may contain:

  • Colors that are off-white, gray, or green.
  • Fishy odor, which may be particularly pronounced after sex or during your period.
  • You can have BV without showing any signs or symptoms. If you have BV, regardless of whether it causes symptoms or not, you should see your doctor and get treated.

Keep in mind that Gardnerella vaginalis is a bacterial species that can contribute to the development of BV. It is not a disease in and of itself. Although Gardnerella is not technically classified as a sexually transmitted infection, sexual activity, particularly with a new partner or several partners, increases your risk.

HOW TO TREAT IT?

To restore Gardnerella to healthy levels and resolve your BV, your doctor may prescribe oral or intravaginal antibiotics.

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

Avoid douching as your vaginal flora performs an excellent job of keeping a healthy balance of germs. Douching can cause an imbalance in your vaginal bacteria, which can lead to illness. During sex, use condoms. When you have unprotected intercourse, your vaginal flora is more likely to be upset, resulting in BV.

OTHER MICROORGANISMS

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

About half of all women and fewer men have these bacteria in their urinary tract and genitals. However, if you're in generally good health, you shouldn't be concerned. They only cause infections in a small percentage of cases. Women who have a compromised immune system are the most vulnerable.

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

It can sometimes induce infection that is sexually transmitted. Monogamous couples can contract mycoplasma hominis even after years of exclusivity, which sets it apart from other STIs. The symptoms of a Mycoplasma hominis infection are similar to those of many other sexually transmitted infections, and the infection is frequently misdiagnosed as gonorrhoea or chlamydia. Mycoplasma hominis might also be present without causing any symptoms. 

Infection with Mycoplasma hominis can induce urethritis in women and raise their risk of vaginitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It is especially dangerous for people who are immunocompromised, such as those who have HIV/AIDS or are taking immunosuppressive drugs.

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Because Mycoplasmas lack a cell wall, penicillins and other antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis have no effect on mycoplasmas. Other broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as one in the tetracycline family, like doxycycline, stop mycoplasmas from growing in their host. 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

  • Using contraceptive devices such as condoms.
  • After learning that a current or previous sex partner has, or may have had, a sexually transmitted infection, seek medical help.
  • Obtaining your present partner's STI history and requiring that they be tested and treated prior to intercourse.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

These bacterial strains are typically prevalent in human urogenital tracts, but overgrowth can lead to infections that cause discomfort to the patient. It is parasitic, which means it can only survive if it has a host, such as a human or animal.

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

During sexual contact, ureaplasma can be spread. Ureaplasma urealyticum is a bacterium that can cause urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and bacterial vaginosis. Infection can also occur outside of the vaginal area. The "fishy" odor caused by the formation of ammonia by the hydrolysis of urea is a common symptom. The bacterium has a strong link to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Furthermore, this bacterium may infect pregnant women's chorionic villi tissues latently, affecting pregnancy outcomes.

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Ureaplasma is a bacterium that belongs to the class of Mycoplasma. Therefore, the bacterium lacks a cell wall. It is resistant to some common antibiotics, including penicillin, due to its lack of a cell wall. Others, on the other hand, can be used to treat it.

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

The risk of infection from this and other sexually transmitted diseases is greatly reduced if you practice safe sex. However, some persons may develop Ureaplasma colonization even if they have never had sex. Ureaplasma is an opportunistic bacteria, which means it can be present in healthy people as well as people who have certain diseases. When the immune system is weakened by disease, stress, or another opportunity, opportunistic microorganisms can multiply and infect the body, making the person sick. Getting treatment for medical disorders and seeing a doctor on a regular basis will help you avoid these situations.

WHAT IS IT? WHY IS IT THERE? 

Chlamydia trachomatis, commonly known as chlamydia, is a bacterial-caused sexually transmitted infection (STI). Because the majority of persons with chlamydia, regardless of gender, show no symptoms, it is commonly referred to as a silent illness. People who do notice symptoms are typically unaware that they have chlamydia until many weeks after becoming infected. Because chlamydia cases are frequently asymptomatic, it's simple to spread the infection without realizing it.

 

WHEN IS IT A PROBLEM?

Chlamydia trachomatis is spread most commonly during vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse. It's also possible for pregnant mothers to pass chlamydia on to their babies during delivery, resulting in pneumonia or a serious eye infection. It can manifest in various ways, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), especially if untreated. PID is a uterus and fallopian tube infection that causes pelvic pain and fever. Severe infections may necessitate admission to the hospital for intravenous antibiotics. The fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus, including the cervix, can all be damaged by PID.

 

HOW TO TREAT IT?

Antibiotics can clear up chlamydia in about a week or two. Treatment is determined by the location of the illness, the patient's age, and whether or not another infection is present. To prevent reinfection, treatment is frequently given to both spouses at the same time. Avoiding sexual activities that could lead to re-infection, as well as ensuring that any sexual partners who may be sick receive treatment, should all be part of your treatment.

 

HOW TO PREVENT IT?

  • During each sexual interaction, use a male latex condom or a female polyurethane condom. When condoms are used properly throughout every sexual contact, the risk of infection is reduced but not eliminated.
  • Make sure you have frequent screenings. Talk to your doctor about how often you should be tested for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted illnesses if you're sexually active, especially if you have several partners.
  • Avoid douching as it reduces the quantity of beneficial bacteria in the vaginal area, raising the risk of infection.

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